Castamir's sons seize Umbar and break away from Gondor
Event Type: Political
Age: 3rd Age - The Kings
An event in the aftermath of the Kin-strife in Gondor; see that entry for an overview:
Kastamir was slain ... but his sons and many of his kin and party fled to Umbar, and long held it as an independent realm at war with Gondor.
The Peoples of Middle-Earth, HoME Vol 12, Part 1, Ch 7, The Heirs of Elendil: The Southern Line of Gondor, The Anárioni
... [Castamir's sons] established themselves at Umbar. There they made a refuge for all the enemies of the king, and a lordship independent of his crown. Umbar remained at war with Gondor for many lives of men, a threat to its coastlands and to all traffic on the sea. It was never again completely subdued until the days of Elessar; and the region of South Gondor became a debatable land between the Corsairs and the Kings.
'The loss of Umbar was grievous to Gondor, not only because the realm was diminished in the south and its hold upon the Men of the Harad was loosened, but because it was there that Ar-Pharazôn the Golden, last King of Númenor, had landed and humbled the might of Sauron.'
The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion
Elena Tiriel 12Dec04