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History of Gondor: Overview

Event Type: Political

Age Begins: Akallabêth/Last Alliance

Age Ends: 4th Age

Dates: January 1, 3320 ~ March 1, 0120

Description:
Table of Contents:

History of Gondor:

Second Age
Third Age
— — The Kings
— — The Stewards
Fourth Age

Notes

History of Gondor

Second Age

3319
Downfall of Númenor
3320
Realms in Exile founded: Arnor and Gondor
Isildur and Anárion found the southern realm of Gondor
Sauron lied to the King [of Númenor], declaring that everlasting life would be his who possessed the Undying Lands....

At length Ar-Pharazôn listened to this counsel, for he felt the waning of his days and was besotted by the fear of Death. He prepared then the greatest armament that the world had seen, and when all was ready he sounded his trumpets and set sail; and he broke the Ban of the Valar, going up with war to wrest everlasting life from the Lords of the West But when Ar-Pharazôn set foot upon the shores of Aman the Blessed, the Valar laid down their Guardianship and called upon the One, and the world was changed. Númenor was thrown down and swallowed in the Sea, and the Undying Lands were removed for ever from the circles of the world. So ended the glory of Númenor.

The last leaders of the Faithful, Elendil and his sons, escaped from the Downfall with nine ships, bearing a seedling of Nimloth, and the Seven Seeing-stones (gifts of the Eldar to their House); and they were borne on the wings of a great storm and cast up on the shores of Middle-earth. There they established in the North-west the Númenorean realms in exile, Arnor and Gondor.

[Sauron] fled back to Middle-earth.... He re-entered Mordor, and hid there for a time in silence.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Númenor


3429
War between Sauron and Gondor
Sauron attacks Gondor
— — Fall of Minas Ithil — Second Age
[Sauron's] anger was great when he learned that Elendil, whom he most hated, had escaped him, and was now ordering a realm upon his borders.

Therefore, after a time he made war upon the Exiles, before they should take root. Orodruin burst once more into flame, and was named anew in Gondor Amon Amarth, Mount Doom.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Númenor


3430 - 3441
The Last Alliance
Last Alliance is Formed
Battle of Dagorlad
Siege of Barad-dûr: Overview
— — Anárion, King of Gondor, slain
— — Barad-dûr thrown down
— — Elendil, King of Arnor and Gondor, slain
But Sauron struck too soon, before his own power was rebuilt, whereas the power of Gil-galad had increased in his absence; and in the Last Alliance that was made against him Sauron was overthrown and the One Ring was taken from him.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Númenor


Third Age

Third Age — The Kings

2
Isildur plants a seedling of the White Tree in Minas Anor
Isildur delivers Gondor to Meneldil
Disaster of the Gladden Fields: overview
Isildur, King of Arnor and Gondor, slain
After the fall of Sauron, Isildur, the son and heir of Elendil, returned to Gondor. There he assumed the Elendilmir as King of Arnor, and proclaimed his sovereign lordship over all the Dúnedain in the North and in the South....

Unfinished Tales, Part 3, Ch 1, The Disaster of the Gladden Fields


420
Ostoher rebuilds Minas Anor
490 - 542
1st and 2nd Invasions by the Easterlings
1st Invasion of Gondor by Easterlings
— — Tarostar Defeats the 1st Invasion
2nd Invasion of Gondor by Easterlings
— — Tarostar, King Rómendacil I of Gondor, Slain
— — Turambar Defeats the 2nd Invasion
It was Ostoher the seventh king who rebuilt Minas Anor, where afterwards the kings dwelt in summer rather than in Osgiliath. In his time Gondor was first attacked by wild men out of the East. But Tarostar, his son, defeated them and drove them out, and took the name of Rómendacil 'East-victor'. He was, however, later slain in battle with fresh hordes of Easterlings. Turambar his son avenged him, and won much territory eastwards.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


830 - 1050
The Ship-kings and First Wars with Umbar and Harad
The line of Ship-kings of Gondor begins
Eärnil I takes Umbar
Eärnil I lost at sea
Ciryandil of Gondor slain in the Siege of Umbar
Ciryaher Hyarmendacil I of Gondor conquers the Harad
The line of Ship-kings of Gondor ends
With Tarannon, the twelfth king, began the line of the Ship-kings, who built navies and extended the sway of Gondor along the coasts west and south of the Mouths of Anduin.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


1050
Gondor reaches the height of its power
Gondor reached the summit of its power. The realm then extended north to [the Field of] Celebrant1 and the southern eaves of Mirkwood; west to the Greyflood; east to the inland Sea of Rhûn; south to the River Harnen, and thence along the coast to the peninsula and haven of Umbar. The Men of the Vales of Anduin acknowledged its authority; and the kings of the Harad did homage to Gondor, and their sons lived as hostages in the court of its King. Mordor was desolate, but was watched over by great fortresses that guarded the passes.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


1149 - 1240
Atanatar II Alcarin Becomes King of Gondor

1240 - 1248
3rd Invasion by the Easterlings
Minalcar becomes Regent of Gondor
3rd Invasion of Gondor by Easterlings
— — Minalcar defeats the 3rd Invasion
Minalcar, son of Calmacil, was a man of great vigour, and in 1240 Narmacil, to rid himself of all cares, made him Regent of the realm. From that time onwards he governed Gondor in the name of the kings until he succeeded his father. His chief concern was with the Northmen.

These had increased greatly in the peace brought by the power of Gondor. The kings showed them favour, since they were the nearest in kin of lesser Men to the Dúnedain (being for the most part descendants of those peoples from whom the Edain of old had come); and they gave them wide lands beyond Anduin south of Greenwood the Great, to be a defence against men of the East. For in the past the attacks of the Easterlings had come mostly over the plain between the Inland Sea and the Ash Mountains.

In the days of Narmacil I their attacks began again, though at first with little force; but it was learned by the regent that the Northmen did not always remain true to Gondor, and some would join forces with the Easterlings, either out of greed for spoil, or in the furtherance of feuds among their princes. Minalcar therefore in 1248 led out a great force, and between Rhovanion and the Inland Sea he defeated a large army of the Easterlings and destroyed all their camps and settlements east of the Sea. He then took the name of Rómendacil.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


1250 - 1344
Intermarriage between the royal line of Gondor and the Northmen lays the foundation for the Kin-strife
Valacar becomes ambassador to Vidugavia, King of Rhovanion
Valacar weds Vidumavi, daughter of the King of Rhovanion
Eldacar of Gondor born as Vinitharya in Rhovanion
Vidumavi dies
Valacar becomes King of Gondor
Rómendacil sent his son Valacar to dwell for a while with Vidugavia, who called himself the King of Rhovanion, and was indeed the most powerful of their princes, though his own realm lay between Greenwood and the River Running. There Valacar was wedded to Vidugavia's daughter, and so caused later the evil war of the Kin-strife.

The Peoples of Middle-Earth, HoME Vol 12, Part 1, Ch 9, The Making of Appendix A: The Realms in Exile


1432 - 1448
Kin-strife in Gondor: overview
Valacar, King of Gondor, dies
Eldacar becomes King of Gondor
Rebellions in southern Gondor begin the Kin-strife
Eldacar battles rival claimants to the throne
Castamir captures Osgiliath and deposes Eldacar
— — Castamir the Usurper becomes King of Gondor
— — Eldacar exiled to Rhovanion
— — Ornendil, Eldacar's heir, executed by Castamir the Usurper
Castamir the Usurper alienates the people of northern Gondor
Eldacar raises an army to reclaim the throne
— — Battle of the Crossings of Erui
— — — Castamir the Usurper, King of Gondor, slain by Eldacar
— — — Eldacar regains the throne of Gondor
Siege of Pelargir
— — Castamir's sons escape the Siege of Pelargir
Castamir's sons seize Umbar and break away from Gondor
There was already rebellion in the southern provinces when King Valacar grew old.... [When] Eldacar succeeded his father there was war in Gondor. But Eldacar did not prove easy to thrust from his heritage....

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


1540 - 1634
Second Wars with Umbar and Harad
Aldamir, King of Gondor, slain in the War with Harad and Umbar
Hyarmendacil II defeats the Haradrim
Corsairs ravage Pelargir
— — Minardil, King of Gondor, Slain
[Castamir the Usurper's sons] sailed away, and established themselves at Umbar. There they made a refuge for all the enemies of the king, and a lordship independent of his crown. Umbar remained at war with Gondor for many lives of men, a threat to its coastlands and to all traffic on the sea.

It was never again completely subdued until the days of Elessar; and the region of South Gondor became a debatable land between the Corsairs and the Kings.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


1636 - 1640
The Great Plague devastates Gondor
The Great Plague: overview
Telemnar, King of Gondor, and His Children Die
The White Tree of Gondor dies
Tarondor Becomes King of Gondor
— — Tarondor removes the King's House to Minas Anor
— — — Tarondor plants a seedling of the White Tree
— — — Osgiliath begins to fall into ruin
Mordor is left unguarded
Húrin of Emyn Arnen founds the House of the Stewards
The second and greatest evil came upon Gondor in the reign of Telemnar, the twenty-sixth king.... [A] deadly plague came with dark winds out of the East The King and all his children died, and great numbers of the people of Gondor, especially those that lived in Osgiliath. Then for weariness and fewness of men the watch on the borders of Mordor ceased and the fortresses that guarded the passes were unmanned.

Later it was noted that these things happened even as the Shadow grew deep in Greenwood, and many evil things reappeared, signs of the arising of Sauron. It is true that the enemies of Gondor also suffered, or they might have overwhelmed it in its weakness; but Sauron could wait, and it may well be that the opening of Mordor was what he chiefly desired.

When King Telemnar died the White Tree of Minas Anor also withered and died. But Tarondor, his nephew, who succeeded him, replanted a seedling in the citadel. He it was who removed the king's house permanently to Minas Anor, for Osgiliath was now partly deserted, and began to fall into ruin. Few of those who had fled from the plague into Ithilien or to the western dales were willing to return.

Tarondor, coming young to the throne, had the longest reign of all the Kings of Gondor; but he could achieve little more than the reordering of his realm within, and the slow nursing of its strength.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion

[The House of Stewards] were descended, father to son, from [Húrin of Emyn Arnen], Steward to King Minardil, who had laboured greatly for the ordering of the realm in the disastrous days of the plague, when King Telemnar died within two years of the slaying of King Minardil by the Corsairs.

The Peoples of Middle-Earth, HoME Vol 12, Part 1, Ch 7, The Heirs of Elendil: The Ruling Stewards of Gondor


1810
Telumehtar retakes Umbar and drives out the Corsairs
Telumehtar [Tarondor's] son, remembering the death of Minardil, and being troubled by the insolence of the Corsairs, who raided his coasts even as far as the Anfalas, gathered his forces and in 1810 took Umbar by storm. In that war the last descendants of Castamir perished, and Umbar was again held for a while by the kings. Telumehtar added to his name the title Umbardacil.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


1851 - 1856
Wars with the Wainriders (1851 - 1944): overview
Wainriders begin their attacks on Gondor
Northmen of Rhovanion ally with Gondor against the Wainriders
Battle of the Plains
— — Narmacil II, King of Gondor, slain
[The] invasion of the Wainriders... sapped the waning strength of Gondor in wars that lasted for almost a hundred years.... Stirred up, as was afterwards seen, by the emissaries of Sauron, they made a sudden assault upon Gondor, and King Narmacil II was slain in battle with them beyond Anduin in 1856. The people of eastern and southern Rhovanion were enslaved; and the frontiers of Gondor were for that time withdrawn to the Anduin and the Emyn Muil.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


1899
Battle against the Wainriders at Dagorlad
Calimehtar, son of Narmacil II, helped by a revolt in Rhovanion, avenged his father with a great victory over the Easterlings upon Dagorlad in 1899, and for a while the peril was averted.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


1900
Calimehtar builds the White Tower in Minas Anor

circa 1900 - 1943
Wainriders, Haradrim, and Variags ally against Gondor
Many of the Wainriders now passed south of Mordor and made alliance with men of Khand and of Near Harad.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


1936 - 1940
Arnor and Gondor renew communications and form an alliance
Arvedui, heir of Araphant, weds Fíriel, daughter of Ondoher
It was in the reign of Araphant in the North and of Ondoher son of Calimehtar in the South that the two kingdoms again took counsel together after long silence and estrangement.... But neither kingdom was able to send help to the other; for Angmar renewed its attack upon Arthedain at the same time as the Wainriders reappeared in great force.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


1944
Invasion of Gondor by Wainriders and Haradrim: overview
Battle against the Wainriders at the Morannon
— — Ondoher, King of Gondor, slain
— — Ondoher's heirs slain
Eärnil defeats Haradrim in South Ithilien
Eärnil wins the Battle of the Camp
[In] this great assault from north and south, Gondor came near to destruction. In 1944 King Ondoher and both his sons, Artamir and Faramir, fell in battle north of the Morannon, and the enemy poured into Ithilien. But Eärnil, Captain of the Southern Army, won a great victory in South Ithilien and destroyed the army of Harad that had crossed the River Poros. Hastening north, he gathered to him all that he could of the retreating Northern Army and came up against the main camp of the Wainriders, while they were feasting and revelling, believing that Gondor was overthrown and that nothing remained but to take the spoil. Eärnil stormed the camp and set fire to the wains, and drove the enemy in a great rout out of Ithilien. A great part of those who fled before him perished in the Dead Marshes.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


1944 - 1940
Pelendur becomes Temporary Steward of Gondor
Arvedui claims the crown of Gondor but his claim is rejected
Eärnil receives the crown of Gondor
— — Pelendur becomes Steward to King Eärnil II
On the death of Ondoher and his sons, Arvedui of the North-kingdom claimed the crown of Gondor, as the direct descendant of Isildur, and as the husband of Fíriel, only surviving child of Ondoher. The claim was rejected....

The crown was claimed by Eärnil, the victorious captain; and it was granted to him with the approval of all the Dúnedain in Gondor, since he was of the royal house. He was the son of Siriondil, son of Calimmacil, son of Arciryas brother of Narmacil II....

Eärnil was a wise man, and not arrogant.... He sent messages to Arvedui announcing that he received the crown of Gondor, according to the laws and the needs of the South-kingdom, "but I do not forget the loyalty of Arnor, nor deny our kinship, nor wish that the realms of Elendil should be estranged. I will send to your aid when you have need, so far as I am able."

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


1975
Battle of Fornost: Overview
Arthedain sends to Gondor for help
Witch-king of Angmar occupies Arthedain
Eärnur brings a fleet to Lindon
Host of the West marches to challenge the Witch-king
— — Witch-king shames Eärnur at the Battle of Fornost
— — Glorfindel foretells the Witch-king's doom
[In] the autumn of 1973 messages came to Gondor that Arthedain was in great straits, and that the Witch-king was preparing a last stroke against it.

Then Eärnil sent his son Eärnur north with a fleet, as swiftly as he could, and with as great strength as he could spare....

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion

Elrond and Círdan, with some belated help from Gondor, sent by sea, defeated the forces of Angmar. The Witch-king was overthrown by Elrond, and his realm brought to an end. The northern lands though desolate were now made somewhat more wholesome again.

The Peoples of Middle-Earth, HoME Vol 12, Part 1, Ch 7, The Northern Line of Gondor: The Isildurioni

So ended the evil realm of Angmar; and so did Eärnur, Captain of Gondor, earn the chief hatred of the Witch-king....

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


1980
Witch-king comes to Mordor
2000-2002
The Nazgûl issue from Mordor and besiege Minas Ithil
Fall of Minas Ithil
Palantír of Minas Ithil captured
Many inhabitants flee Ithilien after Fall of Minas Ithil
[The] Witch-king escaping from the North came to Mordor, and there gathered the other Ringwraiths.... They issued from Mordor by the Pass of Cirith Ungol and laid siege to Minas Ithil. This they took in 2002.... Minas Ithil became a place of fear, and was renamed Minas Morgul.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


2043
Eärnur becomes King of Gondor
The Witch-king issues his first challenge to Eärnur
Minas Anor renamed Minas Tirith
When Eärnur received the crown in 2043 the King of Minas Morgul challenged him to single combat, taunting him that he had not dared to stand before him in battle in the North. For that time Mardil the Steward restrained the wrath of the king. Minas Anor... was now renamed Minas Tirith, as the city ever on guard against the evil of Morgul.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


2050
Eärnur accepts the Witch-king's second challenge
Eärnur, King of Gondor, presumed slain by the Witch-king
— — Line of Kings of Gondor ends
— — Rule of the Stewards of Gondor begins with Mardil Voronwë
— — — Stewardship becomes hereditary in Gondor
Eärnur had held the crown only seven years when the Lord of Morgul repeated his challenge, taunting the king that to the faint heart of his youth he had now added the weakness of age. Then Mardil could no longer restrain him, and he rode with a small escort of knights to the gate of Minas Morgul. None of that riding were ever heard of again. It was believed in Gondor that the faithless enemy had trapped the king, and that he had died in torment in Minas Morgul; but since there were no witnesses of his death, Mardil the Good Steward ruled Gondor in his name for many years.

Now the descendants of the kings had become few....

So it was that no claimant to the crown could be found who was of pure blood, or whose claim all would allow.... Therefore, though the years lengthened, the Steward continued to rule Gondor....

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion


Third Age — The Stewards

2063 - 2460
The Watchful Peace
At first [the Stewards] had quiet, for those were the days of the Watchful Peace, during which Sauron withdrew before the power of the White Council and the Ringwraiths remained hidden in Morgul Vale. But from the time of Denethor I, there was never full peace again, and even when Gondor had no great or open war its borders were under constant threat.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion: The Stewards


2475
Mordor renews attacks on Gondor
Osgiliath ruined and abandoned
The attack upon Gondor is begun again with new vigour, in the days of Denethor I, son of Dior, the tenth Steward. His son Boromir defeats the enemy before East Osgiliath, but Osgiliath is finally ruined in this war, and the ancient and marvellous stone-bridge is broken. The Men of Gondor still maintain their hold upon Ithilien, but little by little its people desert it and pass west over Anduin to the valleys of the White Mountains.

The Peoples of Middle-Earth, HoME Vol 12, Part 1, Ch 8, The Tale of Years of the Third Age


2510
Invasion of Calenardhon by Balchoth and Orcs: overview
Cirion... was watchful and wary, but the reach of Gondor had grown short, and he could do little more than defend his borders, while his enemies (or the power that moved them) prepared strokes against him that he could not hinder. The Corsairs harried his coasts, but it was in the north that his chief peril lay. In the wide lands of Rhovanion, between Mirkwood and the River Running, a fierce people now dwelt, wholly under the shadow of Dol Guldur.... These Balchoth were constantly increased by others of like kind that came in from the east, whereas the people of Calenardhon had dwindled. Cirion was hard put to it to hold the line of the Anduin.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion: The Stewards


2510
Cirion sends for aid from the Éothéod
— — Ride of Eorl
Battle of the Field of Celebrant
Cirion sent north for aid, but over-late; for in that year (2510) the Balchoth, having built many great boats and rafts on the east shores of Anduin, swarmed over the River and swept away the defenders. An army marching up from the south was cut off and driven north over the Limlight, and there it was suddenly attacked by a horde of Orcs from the Mountains and pressed towards the Anduin. Then out of the North there came help beyond hope, and the horns of the Rohirrim were first heard in Gondor. Eorl the Young came with his riders and swept away the enemy, and pursued the Balchoth to the death over the fields of Calenardhon.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion: The Stewards


2510
The Rohirrim settle in Calenardhon
Cirion and Eorl swear oaths on the Hill of Awe
— — Gift of Cirion
— — Oath of Eorl and Oath of Cirion
— — Cirion and Eorl define the boundaries of Calenardhon
Cirion granted to Eorl that land to dwell in, and he swore to Cirion the Oath of Eorl, of friendship at need or at call to the Lords of Gondor.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion: The Stewards

Eorl and his people are given the plains of [Calenardhon] to dwell in, and that land is now called Rochann (Rohan). There the Rohirrim live as free men under their own kings, but in perpetual alliance with Minas Tirith.

The Peoples of Middle-Earth, HoME Vol 12, Part 1, Ch 8, The Tale of Years of the Third Age


2698
Ecthelion I rebuilds the White Tower in Minas Tirith

2710
Dunlendings occupy Isengard
In 2710 [Dunlendings] occupied the deserted ring of Isengard, and could not be dislodged.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: The House of Eorl: The Kings of the Mark


2758 - 2759
Gondor attacked by fleets of the Corsairs
Rohan attacked from west and east and overrun
The Long Winter
Gondor aids Rohan
In the days of Beren, the nineteenth Steward, an even greater peril came upon Gondor. Three great fleets, long prepared, came up from Umbar and the Harad, and assailed the coasts of Gondor in great force; and the enemy made many landings, even as far north as the mouth of the Isen. At the same time the Rohirrim were assailed from the west and the east, and their land was overrun, and they were driven into the dales of the White Mountains. In that year (2758) the Long Winter began with cold and great snows out of the North and the East which lasted for almost five months. Helm Hammerhand of Rohan and both his sons perished in that war; and there was misery and death in Eriador and in Rohan. But in Gondor south of the mountains things were less evil, and before spring came Beregond son of Beren had overcome the invaders. At once he sent aid to Rohan.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion: The Stewards


2759
Saruman takes up his abode in Isengard
Rohan was slower to be healed of the hurts that it had received. It was for this reason that Beren welcomed Saruman, and gave to him the keys of Orthanc; and from that year on (2759) Saruman dwelt in Isengard.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion: The Stewards


2793 - 2799
War of the Dwarves and Orcs
It was in the days of Beregond that the War of the Dwarves and Orcs was fought in the Misty Mountains (2793-9), of which only rumour came south, until the Orcs fleeing from Nanduhirion attempted to cross Rohan and establish themselves in the White Mountains. There was fighting for many years in the dales before that danger was ended.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion: The Stewards


28722
Belecthor II, Steward of Gondor, dies
The White Tree dies, and no seedling can be found. The Dead Tree is left standing.

2885
Invasion of Ithilien by Haradrim
Rohan Aids Gondor in the Invasion of Ithilien
Battle with the Haradrim at the Crossings of Poros
— — Folcwine's Heirs Slain
In the days of Turin II the enemies of Gondor began to move again; for Sauron was grown again to power and the day of his arising was drawing near.... [His] chief peril lay in the south, where the Haradrim had occupied South Gondor, and there was much fighting along the Poros. When Ithilien was invaded in great strength, King Folcwine of Rohan fulfilled the Oath of Eorl and repaid his debt for the aid brought by Beregond, sending many men to Gondor. With their aid Túrin won a victory at the crossings of the Poros; but the sons of Folcwine both fell in the battle.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion: The Stewards


circa 2901
Ithilien mostly deserted due to attacks by Uruks of Mordor
Henneth Annûn built
Cair Andros refortified
All but the hardiest of its people deserted Ithilien and removed west over Anduin, for the land was infested by Mordor-orcs. It was [Túrin II] that built secret refuges for his soldiers in Ithilien, of which Henneth Annûn was the longest guarded and manned. He also fortified again the isle of Cair Andros to defend Anórien.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion: The Stewards


2911 - 2912
The Fell Winter
Enedwaith and Minhiriath devastated by floods
Tharbad ruined by floods and deserted

2942
Sauron returns in secret to Mordor

2951
Sauron declares himself openly
Sauron begins rebuilding Barad-dûr
Turgon followed Túrin, but of his time it is chiefly remembered that two years ere his death, Sauron arose again, and declared himself openly; and he re-entered Mordor long prepared for him. Then the Barad-dûr was raised once more, and Mount Doom burst into flame, and the last of the folk of Ithilien fled far away.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion: The Stewards

2953
Saruman seizes and fortifies Isengard

[Saruman] turned to evil and became an enemy....

Unfinished Tales, Part 3, Ch 5, The Battles of the Fords of Isen: Appendix


2954
Mount Doom bursts into flame
Ithilien completely deserted by its inhabitants

2957 - 2980
Aragorn (disguised as Thorongil) serves in Rohan and Gondor
Ecthelion II... encouraged all men of worth from near or far to enter his service, and to those who proved trustworthy he gave rank and reward. In much that he did he had the aid and advice of a great captain whom he loved above all. Thorongil men called him in Gondor, the Eagle of the Star....

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion: The Stewards


c. 3000
The shadow of Mordor lengthens

3017
Gandalf visits Minas Tirith and reads the scroll of Isildur

June 3018
20

Sauron's Forces Attack Osgiliath

July 3018
4

Boromir travels from Minas Tirith to Rivendell

February 3019
26

Orc-raid at Parth Galen
Boromir, Denethor II's heir, slain
— — his horn is heard in Minas Tirith

March 3019
7

Faramir Ambushes Haradrim in Ithilien

Sauron's forces attack Gondor
Siege of Minas Tirith: Overview
8
Corsair Fleet Approaches the Mouths of the Anduin
Denethor Sends for Aid from Rohan

9
Darkness Flows Out of Mordor

10
The Dawnless Day Arrives
Gandalf Rescues Faramir from the Nazgûl
Sauron's Forces from the Morannon Invade Anórien
Sauron's Forces from Minas Morgul Attack Osgiliath

11
Denethor Sends Faramir to Defend Osgiliath
Sauron's Forces Blockade the Roads to Minas Tirith

12
Faramir Defeated at Osgiliath

13
Faramir Defeated at the Causeway Forts
Sauron's Forces Breach the Pelennor Wall
— — Faramir Guards the Retreat Over the Pelennor
— — Faramir Falls in the Retreat Over the Pelennor
— — Imrahil and Gandalf Rescue the Retreat Over the Pelennor
The Pelennor Is Overrun

Aragorn Captures the Corsair Fleet at Pelargir

14
The Siege of Minas Tirith Begins
— — Denethor Driven to Madness
— — Gandalf Takes Command of the Defence of Minas Tirith

15
The Witch-king breaches the City Gate
— — Gandalf Obstructs the Witch-king at the City Gate

— — Denethor Commits Suicide
— — — Faramir becomes Steward of Gondor
— — — Imrahil takes temporary charge of Gondor

Battle of the Pelennor: Overview
— — Aragorn Arrives with the Corsair Fleet
— — Sauron's Forces Defeated
— — — Witch-king Slain by Éowyn and Merry
Siege of Minas Tirith Broken
[Before] the City of Gondor a great field was fought, and the Lord of Morgul, Captain of Sauron, there passed into darkness....

The Silmarillion, Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age


16
Debate of the Commanders
17
Rohirrim Rout Sauron's Forces from Anórien

The Host of the West attacks Mordor
18
Host of the West marches from Minas Tirith
Host of the West reaches Osgiliath
Vanguard of the Host of the West reach the Cross-roads
19
Captains of the West come to Morgul Vale
— — Host of the West marches north through Ithilien
— — Host of the West evades ambush by Sauron's forces
23
Host of the West passes out of Ithilien
24
Host of the West camps before the Morannon
25
Battle of the Morannon
Destruction of the One Ring, downfall of Barad-dûr and passing of Sauron
[The] Heir of Isildur led the host of the West to the Black Gates of Mordor.

In that last battle were Mithrandir, and the sons of Elrond, and the King of Rohan, and lords of Gondor, and the Heir of Isildur with the Dúnedain of the North. There at the last they looked upon death and defeat, and all their valour was in vain; for Sauron was too strong. Yet in that hour was put to the proof that which Mithrandir had spoken, and help came from the hands of the weak when the Wise faltered....

For Frodo the Halfling, it is said, at the bidding of Mithrandir took on himself the burden, and alone with his servant he passed through peril and darkness and came at last in Sauron's despite even to Mount Doom; and there into the Fire where it was wrought he cast the Great Ring of Power, and so at last it was unmade and its evil consumed.

Then Sauron failed, and he was utterly vanquished and passed away like a shadow of malice; and the towers of Barad-dûr crumbled in ruin, and at the rumour of their fall many lands trembled.

The Silmarillion, Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age


April 3019
8

The Ring-bearers are honoured on the Field of Cormallen

May 3019
1

Line of Kings of Gondor renewed with Elessar Telcontar
Aragorn II Becomes King Elessar Telcontar of Arnor and Gondor
— — Crowning of King Elessar
Rule of the Stewards of Gondor ends with Faramir
— — Faramir becomes Steward to King Elessar
— — Faramir becomes Prince of Ithilien (estimated date)
King Elessar receives embassies
Thus peace came again, and a new Spring opened on earth; and the Heir of Isildur was crowned King of Gondor and Arnor, and the might of the Dúnedain was lifted up and their glory renewed.

The Silmarillion, Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age


June 3019
25

Aragorn finds the sapling of the White Tree

3019
Mid-year's Day

Aragorn weds Arwen
In the courts of Minas Anor the White Tree flowered again, for a seedling was found by Mithrandir in the snows of Mindolluin that rose tall and white above the City of Gondor; and while it still grew there the Elder Days were not wholly forgotten in the hearts of the Kings.

The Silmarillion, Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age


3019
July/August

Aragorn Grants Drúadan Forest to the Drúedain

Fourth Age

March 3021
25

Fourth Age begins in the reckoning of Gondor
King Elessar now ruled [in] all the lands of those realms of old he was king, save in Rohan only; for he renewed to Éomer the gift of Cirion, and Éomer took again the Oath of Eorl. Often he fulfilled it. For though Sauron had passed, the hatreds and evils that he bred had not died, and the King of the West had many enemies to subdue before the White Tree could grow in peace.

The Return of the King, LoTR Appendix A, Annals of the Kings and Rulers: The House of Eorl


March 120
1

Elessar, King of Arnor and Gondor, dies
Eldarion becomes King of Arnor and Gondor

Notes
This entry concentrates primarily on the history of the Gondorians. For the history of other races dwelling within the borders of Gondor at its greatest extent, see the entries for Corsairs of Umbar, Drúedain, Dunlendings, Easterlings, Haradrim and Rohirrim.

For the earlier history of the Gondorians, see the entry for the Númenoreans.
1 Christopher Tolkien mentions both in Unfinished Tales and in Peoples of Middle-earth that "to the Celebrant" was an error which should read "to the Field of Celebrant."
2 The date of the death of the Steward Belecthor II in all three texts of The Heirs of Elendil is 2872. The date 2852 in the later typescripts of the Tale of Years and in Appendix B is evidently a casual error.

The Peoples of Middle-Earth, HoME Vol 12, Part 1, Ch 8, The Tale of Years of the Third Age: Notes, Note 38

Contributors:
Tanaqui 2May05-23May05, 14-20Aug05 (many parts of the history were borrowed from Elena Tiriel's Northmen of Rhovanion, Rohirrim and Siege of Minas Tirith entries)
added quote: Elena Tiriel 3Dec07

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