2. LotR, Appendix B, The Tale of Years, The Second Age.
3. Ibid., The Third Age
4. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Silmarillion (S), 1977: Quenta Silmarillion, Chapters 18, 20 and 24; Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age.
5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Unfinished Tales (UT), 1980: Aldarion and Erendis, p. 199.
6. The Henneth-Annun poll set up to investigate this (closed 8/27/2003), shows that almost two thirds of the HA members who cast their vote prefer Gil-galad to be Fingon's son. The remaining third is divided over five other options. Approximately one in six prefers Orodreth as Gil-galad's father, while one in six doesn't care or would rather not have known. Given the relatively small number of members who voted, a majority of the HASA population is either not interested in Gil-galad or doesn't care about polls.
7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Peoples of Middle-earth (PME), The History of Middle-earth, Volume 12, Christopher Tolkien, 1996: pp. 359-351 (pb ed. of 1997).
8. Ibid, p. 350
9. J.R.R. Tolkien, The War of the Jewels (WJ), The History of Middle-earth, Volume 11, Christopher Tolkien, 1995, pp. 56, 243 (quoted from pb ed. of 1996).
10. PME, p. 347 (Ereinion), 331 (dating of Shibboleth)
11. UT, p. 266
12. PME, p. 351. The name Finellach, evolved from Finlachen through the intermediate Finhenlach, only appears in the manuscript of Aldarion and Erendis.
13. PME, p. 349
14. PME, p. 351
15. PME, p. 345 and 361, note 35
16. PME, p. 351
17. For instance Erunyauve in The Boy King and For Love of Mithril and Earonn in What Really Matters and Narn Gil-galad, (all found at fanfiction.net). Incidentally, Erunyauve offers another possible argument in favour of Fingon's paternity: in a footnote to Ch. 3 of For Love of Mithril she points out that Gil-galad's emblem - silver stars on a blue field - is reminiscent of the blue and silver banners of Fingolfin (see Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien, London 1979, Section 47, Heraldic Devices, and QS, Ch. XII Of the Return of the Noldor). Her solution is to assume that blue and silver are the colours of the High King of the Noldor in Middle-earth. Another explanation would be, that the emblems, dating from the 60's, were designed before Tolkien decided to make Gil-galad Finarfin's grandson instead of Fingolfin's.
18. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lost Road, The History of Middle-earth, Volume 5, Christopher Tolkien, 1987.
19. LR, p. 29
20. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lays of Beleriand, The History of Middle-earth, Volume 3, Christopher Tolkien, 1985, p. 24
21. LR, p. 33
22. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lays of Beleriand (LB), The History of Middle-earth, Volume 3, Christopher Tolkien, 1985: The Lay of Leithian, Canto VII, p. 230, 231 (here, too, Sauron goes by the name of Thû).
23. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Return of the Shadow (RS), The History of Middle-earth, Volume 6, Christopher Tolkien, 1988, p. 215, 216
24. RS, p. 189; the date is some time prior to November 1938.
25. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Treason of Isengard (TI), The History of Middle-earth, Volume 7, Christopher Tolkien, 1989, p. 123-125 (Gil-galad's parentage); 116 (approximate time of writing).
26. PoM, p. 172 (date), 173, 174 (Gil-galad son of Felagund; Galadriel sister of Gil-galad).
27. WJ, p. 242. The spelling Eglorest is not a typo for Eglarest, as it would be called later. The italics are Tolkien's.
28. WJ, p. 44, 62, 67
29. WJ, p. 242
30. WJ, p. 243
31. S, QS, Ch. 15, Of the Noldor in Beleriand
32. J.R.R. Tolkien, Morgoth's Ring, The History of Middle-earth, Volume 10, Christopher Tolkien, 1993, p. 213 ( pb edition)
33. PME, p. 350
34. HoMe Volumes III-V are quite consistent about the fact that Orodreth had a son, Halmir 'the Hunter' (V: also 'Haldir'), who was slain (III) or hanged (IV) by Orcs. In HoMe XI, however, the Grey Annals entry mentioning his death - year 488 - is struck out (WJ, p. 82). Did Tolkien already consider replacing Halmir by Gil-galad at the time?
35. ibid, and p. 351.
36. Gil-galad was an Elvenking: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/tolkien/44954; Martinez is among those who consider Tolkien's last version to be decisive precisely because it is the last one.
37. S, QS, Ch. 16, p. 134. There is more to be said about this, as the above is 1) an opinion expressed by Maeglin and therefore not necessarily true (though in that case one might wonder why Maeglin and not Idril was the first to be considered for the role of King's regent when Turgon marched forth to fight in the Nirnaeth, QS, Ch. 16, p. 138), and 2) seems to contradict the information given in Laws and Customs of the Eldar, p. 213 (pb edition) that Eldarin men and women - neri and nissi - were equal: 'There are no matters which among the Eldar only a nér can think of doing, or others with which only a nís is concerned.' No matters: wouldn't this include ruling a people? Perhaps, but this text also states that women were by natue more inclined to healing and men to using weapons, and that healing powers (regardless of gender) were diminished by the dealing of death. As the (High) Kings of the Noldor were invariably war leaders, would it be too far-fetched to assume that for this reason, there were no High Queens? Even though the L&C state that Eldarin women fought valiantly when in dire straits, occupying a position that presupposes the use of arms and the dealing of death is a different thing.
As the sheer length of this footnote shows that the matter of High Queenship deserves an essay of its own, I'll leave it at this. The same goes for the question whether High Kingship was still relevant at the end of the First Age, when the cause of the Noldor was almost lost.
38. Presumably after the Fall of Gondolin and Turgon's death - which would affirm the assumption that Idril was not a candidate, be it by law, custom, or personal choice. As for the latter possibility: two potential Queens of Númenor refused the sceptre, UT p. 220.
39. PME, p. 350
40. S, QS, Ch. 21, p. 213
41. WJ, p. 354-356
42. S, Foreword, p. 8
43. Tolkien's motives for moving Orodreth down a generation may be connected to the diminishing stature of this character throughout the legendarium. From being a powerful king in his own right in the earliest materials, he evolved into the weak ruler of the tale of Túrin Turambar; as Tolkien noted when meditating the development of the story, Orodreth had devolved into 'rather a weak character' (LB, p. 91). A concomitant, downward movement to a generation that did not acquire full stature of body and mind in the bliss of Valinor may have seemed logical at the time. What time this was, remains unclear, as neither the above-mentioned note nor the later versions of the Narn i Hîn Húrin (UT) are dated, though they are certainly post LotR. (Whether such a move was necessary remains debatable, though.)
44. Reflecting a little more on this, I'm almost inclined to regret the fact that The Silmarillion was published as early as 1977. Commercial considerations and the demands of the fans have been allowed to prevail over the need to do full justice to the author's wishes and intentions by first acquiring a complete grasp of all the existing material, or as complete as was humanly possible. This act of impatience will probably prove a severe hindrance for any future attempt to establish a canon acceptable to all readers even after the expiration of copyright in 2043. On the bright side, it has also brought many readers great joy.
45. PME, p. 351
46. I am aware of the fact that Christopher Tolkien was not the only editor of the 1977 Silmarillion. However, as the role of Guy Gavriel Kay in the matter of Gil-galad's history is unclear to me, I have refrained from mentioning him here, and from speculating about his contribution to the eventual result.
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