Native UK Trees: 1. Native UK Trees

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1. Native UK Trees

Alder

Alnus glutinosa: Alder, Common Alder, Black Alde Irish Fearnog

Description:
Rapidly growing tree (0.5m pa for first 30 - 40 years) mature at about 60 years with long trunk and narrow crown. Distinctive outline in winter.

Habitat:
Very tolerant of water logged conditions whilst dormant. Typical streamside tree and as a specific habitat - Alder Carr - in Lake District and Norfolk Broads. All soil types except poor acid peats.

Natural Distribution:
Natural throughout British Isles and most of Europe


The Tree Year:
Flowers: Feb-Mar
Leaves: Apr
Fruit: Oct-Dec
Ripen: Dec
Leaves fall: Nov

Timber:
The wood is light reddish brown and porous with course texture.

Uses of Wood:
General purpose hardwood and pulpwood. Particularly suitable for turning, formerly used to make clogs. Burns quickly when used for firewood but suitable for charcoal (used to be used for charcoal for gunpowder). Hardens when immersed
in water and suitable for making piles

Food and Drink:
The bark and leaves contain tannin and have astringent properties. Used in folk medicine to treat chills.



ASH

Fraxinus excelsior: Ash. Irish Fuinnseog

Description:
Magnificent large deciduous tree with distinctive black buds in spring. Can be coppiced. Height 45m. Age up to 200 years.

Habitat:
Mostly calcerous soils although found on all except poorest and acid soils (above ph 5.5). Prefers moist but well drained fertile soils. Up to 450m in altitude. Grows well in mixed stands provided not shaded.

Natural Distribution:
Throughout British Isles and Europe into Asia Minor and Caucuses. Rare north of Great Glen in Scotland.


The Tree Year:
Flowers: Apr
Leaves: May
Fruit: June
Ripen: Oct
Leaves fall: Sept

Timber:
Pale creamy wood that is strong and elastic.

Uses of Wood:
Hockey sticks, oars, paddles, rudders, billiard cues, cricket stumps, polo sticks and policemen's truncheons. Also used for veneer and furniture. Burns fragrantly when green or dried due to low water content even when green (30 - 35%) but seasoning (to 15% water) does improve efficiency.


ASPEN

Populus tremula: Aspen

Description:
Deciduous very hardy tree distinguished by its shimmering appearance. Height max 20 m. Mature at 50 years.

Habitat:
Wide rang of habitats from wet lowland to mountain ledges but not dry habitats.

Natural Distribution:
Throughout Britain and Ireland, Europe, North Africa and North Asia.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: March
Leaves: April/May
Fruit: May

Timber:
Light coloured wood.

Uses of Wood:
Matches, clogs, floorboards and pulp. Not used for fuel.


BAY WILLOW

Salix pentandre - Bay Willow

Description:
Height 18m

Habitat:
Wet Places.

Natural Distribution:
North Wales and Northwards.

The Tree Year:
Flowers Leaves Fruit Ripen Leaves fall
May/June May/June



BEECH

Fagus sylvatica - Beech Irish Fea

Description:
Magnificent, large, deciduous tree. Important economic forestry tree. Height: Max 40m. Age: mature at 120 years

Habitat:
Chalky soils and limestone but tolerant of a wide range of soils and conditions. Up to 300m

Natural Distribution:
Southern England to Gloucestershire and a few localities in South Wales. Not native to Ireland.Found throughout most of Europe except Spain, Former USSR, Norway and Sweden.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: (Catkins) April/May
Leaves: March/April
Fruit:
Ripen: October
Leaves fall: Nov-April
Timber
Timber:
Pale brown hard wood but relatively easily worked. Whitest wood considered to be best grade.

Uses of Wood:
Large trees for timber. Not suitable for outside use although used for piles immersed in water. Used for furniture and many other uses such as bowls, spoons, tools, plywood, and veneers. Valuable as sawn timber. Good for firewood and production of
charcoal.

Food and Drink:
The nut is known as mast and occurs in abundance every five to eight years. It is nutritious and rich in oil and attractive to birds and small mammals including deer and badger. The oil can be extracted and used for culinary purposes.



BIRD CHERRY

Prunus padus - Bird Cherry

Description:
Small deciduous tree with black egg shaped fruit. Height 15m

Habitat:
In woods particularly by stream sides on limestone hills.

Natural Distribution:
N. England, Wales, Ireland and Scotland.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: May-June

Food and Drink:
Bitter-sweet edible berries



BLACK POPLAR

Populus nigra - Black Poplar

Description:
Deciduous fast growing tree. Planted poplars are hybrids of P. nigra and foreign species. Height 30m

Habitat:
Wet woods and stream sides but becoming rare. Should not be planted near buildings or where there are land drains. Also upland and exposed sites suitable.

Natural Distribution:
Mainly Eastern and Central England but across England to Cheshire. Possibly native in South andCentre of Ireland. Native to most of Europe and Western Asia.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: March/April
Leaves: April/May
Fruit: May/June

Timber:
White and soft wood not very durable.

Uses of Wood:
Used for plywood and as a softwood substitute in building and pallets. Industrial uses include wood wool board products and pulp.


BOX

Buxus sempervirens - Box

Description:
Evergreen small tree, slow growing and long lived. Height max 9m.

Habitat:
Prefers chalk and limestone slopes sometimes with Beech.

Natural Distribution:
Native to a few locations in Southern England and distributed though Southern Europe, N.Africa and Western Asia.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: April/May
Leaves fall: Sept/Oct

Timber:
Yellow very hard and dense wood.

Uses of Wood:
Has been used for carving, turnery, engraving blocks and inlay work. Takes a high polish and once highly valued. Still used for heads of mallets and rulers

Food and Drink:
Considered to have medicinal properties.


CRAB APPLE

Malus sylvestris - Crab Apple. Irish Cran fia-uill

Description:
Small thorny deciduous tree. Height 16m

Habitat:
Common in Oak woods and hedges.

Natural Distribution:
Throughout British Isles except Northern Scotland.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: March
Leaves: April

Timber:
Hard close grained wood.

Uses of Wood:
Wood carving, inlay work, mallets, screws. Good firewood with pleasant aroma.

Food and Drink:
The attractive small fruit are extremely sour but make good jelly by themselves or with blackberries or rowan berries. Crab Apple wine is reported to be potent.


CRACK WILLOW

Salix fragilis - Crack Willow

Description:
Small rapid growing tree. Twigs break off with a sharp crack. Height to 27m. Age typically to 200 years but possibly 1000.

Habitat:
By Streams.

Natural Distribution:
British Isles except Ireland. Europe across Asia to Siberia.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: April
Leaves: April
Fruit: May/June

Timber:
Wood is pinkish, soft, light, brittle and easily splits.

Uses of Wood:
Varied uses such as children's toys, artificial limbs and charcoal.

Food and Drink:
Used as folk remedy for various ills but active ingredient found to be salicylic acid and now supplied as "Aspirin".


COMMON OAK


Quercus robur - Pedunculate Oak, Common Oak, English Oak. Irish Dair.

Description:
Large deciduous tree and probably our commonest tree. Height 30 - 40 m. Age 1000 year or more.

Habitat:
Basic fertile soils ph 4.5 - 7.5 including heavy soils. Mature trees tolerate flooding even by sea-water.
Usually found in mixed woodland.

Natural Distribution:
Throughout Britain and Ireland and most of Western Europe and Asia Minor.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: March/April
Leaves: April

Timber:
Pale brown strong wood. More susceptible to epicormic growth.

Uses of Wood:
See Q. Petraea. Wines and spirits matured in English Oak casks.



DOWNY BIRCH

Betula pubescens - Downy Birch
Irish Beith

Description:
A short lived smallish tree very similar to Silver Birch but with downy twigs and without the little warts found on silver birch. Slower growing than silver birch.

Habitat:
Similar to silver birch but more tolerant of cold and wet.

Natural Distribution:
Common in North and West of Britain but believed to be native throughout British Isles.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: Mar-April.
Leaves: Apr-May



FIELD MAPLE

Acer campestre - Field Maple, Common Maple

Description:
Small tree with small yellow green flowers. Grows well first 20-25 years to 10-15m,
mature at 50 years. Coppices strongly and suitable for hedges standing clipping. Leaves yellow in autumn but also red or golden brown. Height: max 25m. Age: 50 - 100 years.

Habitat:
Typically edges of woods and in hedgerows. Prefers heavy soils calcerous at depth but not lime free (ph 5.5 to 7.7). Frequently associated with ash, hazel and oak. Supports epiphytic lichens and bryophytes and wide range of insects.

Natural Distribution:
Native to Cumbria and Durham and south from there but not Scotland or Ireland. Found throughout mainland Europe except Greece, Norway and Sweden, and Northern Russia and west through Asia Minor to the Caspian sea.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: March
Leaves: April/May
Fruit: June/July
Ripen: October
Leaves fall: November

Timber:
Pale brown wood, soft and fine grained.

Uses of Wood:
Rarely produces timber sized trees and hence used for turnery, marketry, and craft work (used in middle ages for musical instruments). Satisfactory for firewood.


GOAT WILLOW

Salix caprea - Goat Willow, Great Sallow, Pussy
Willow

Description:
Fast growing small tree or bush. Striking catkins in March. Height 6 - 15 m

Habitat:
Woods and hedgerows not restricted to wet places. Up to 600m in Scotland.

Natural Distribution:
Throughout Britain and Ireland except outer Hebrides. Also throughout Europe and North east Africa.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: March/April
Leaves: April
Fruit: May

Timber:
Brittle branches - does not produce useful timber.




HAZEL

Corylus avellana - Hazel Irish Coll

Description:
Deciduous shrubs and small trees frequently coppiced and used for hedges. Many superstitions associated with hazel form Celtic times.Height max 6m. Max age 70-80 years

Habitat:
Not acid soils. Often found as understorey in oak woodlands.

Natural Distribution:
All of British Isles and Europe, West Asia and North Africa.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: February (Catkins very distinctive in February when nothing else in flower or leaf.)
Leaves: May
Fruit: Aug-Sept
Ripen: Oct
Leaves fall: November

Timber:
White to reddish, tough and flexible. Was extensively coppiced providing long sticks for a variety of uses.

Uses of Wood:
Used in past for cask hoops, basketry, walking sticks, hurdles, thatching, spars and devining rods. Good firewood.

Food and Drink:
Nutritious and tasty nuts taken by large birds and by squirrels and mice that store the nuts. Nuts produced from pruned bushes grown in open conditions like a fruit orchard.



HAWTHORN

Crataegus monogyna - Hawthorn, May, Whitethorn Irish Sceach geal

Description:
Deciduous tree dense leaved and thorny with short trunk. Commonly used for stock proof hedging. New shoots and leaves are reddish. Distinctive white blossom with strong scent and red berries (haws) later. Height 10 - 15m. Age long lived - 250 years

Habitat:
Found on all soil types. Protects seedlings of other broadleaved trees particularly oak from predation and hence aids natural regeneration.

Natural Distribution:
Throughout British Isles and Europe to 500m.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: May-June
Leaves: March-April
Fruit: July-August
Ripen: Oct-Nov
Leaves fall: November

Timber:
White streaky or pale pinkish. Tough hard and heavy wood.

Uses of Wood:
Walking sticks, tool handles, engraving and all turnery. Good firewood.

Food and Drink:
Haws attractive to birds and spread in this way



HOLLY

Ilex acquifolium - Holly, Holm. Irish Cuileann


Description:
Small evergreen tree.Height 15m

Habitat:
Wide range of soil types - from calcerous to poor and acid. Locally can form almost pure woods. Suitable for hedging and pollarding. Tolerates shaded positions in beech and oak woods.

Natural Distribution:
Native to British Isles. Particularly found in West but absent from Northern Scotland. Also Western Central and Southern Europe.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: April/May
Fruit: July
Ripen: June (following year)


Timber:
Creamy white wood dense with even grain.

Uses of Wood:
Formerly used for carving inlay and engraving. Twigs yield birdlime. Good firewood even when green.

Food and Drink:
Trees were pollarded and used for winter feed especially in North and West of England. Berries are poisonous though used as an emetic.


HORNBEAM

Carpinus betulus - Hornbeam

Description:
A sturdy deciduous tree superficially resembling Beech. Height max 30m. Age max 150 years.

Habitat:
Prefers low lying rich soils or clays and is shade tolerant. Can be coppiced or pollarded and is good for hedges.

Natural Distribution:
South East England, Thames Valley and locally South Wales and Somerset. Also temperate Europe and Asia Minor.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: March
Leaves: Apr/May
Fruit: Sept.
Ripen: Oct-Nov
Leaves fall: Nov-April

Timber:
Extremely hard white close grained wood. Uses of Wood:Good firewood and for producing charcoal. Was used for cogwheels andbutchers chopping blocks. Blunts
tools.

Food and Drink:
Nuts attractive to birds.



LARGE LEAVED LIME

Tilia platyphyllos - Large Leaved Lime, Linden,
Broad Leaved Lime

Description:
Large deciduous tree rare and restricted in habitats. Height 32m

Habitat:
Woods.

Natural Distribution:
Woods by River Wye, Teme and Severn and in South Yorkshire. Not native to Ireland but throughout France, Central Europe and Asia Minor.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: June
Leaves: Apr/May


JUNIPER

Juniperus communis – Juniper

Description:
Evergreen small tree or bush producing blue black berry (really a cone) which has a whitish bloom. Height 6m Habitat Chiefly on chalk and limestone.

Natural Distribution:
All over British Isles but particularly chalk in Southern England. Found across N. America and in Europe.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: May/June
Ripen: Sept/Oct (year+1)
Sept/Oct (year +1)

Timber:
White aromatic sapwood and brown heartwood. Durable and fairly strong.

Uses of Wood:
Used to produce charcoal. Small amounts used for pencils and small items. Also used to smoke meat. Food and Drink Juniper oil distiled from berries. Berries also used to flavour game and Gin.



MIDLAND THORN

Crataegus laevigata - Midland Thorn, Two styled
Thorn (Crataegus oxyacantha)

Description:
Deciduous shrub or tree with red flowers. Can have single trunk. Height Max 10m

Habitat:
Heavy soils

Natural Distribution:
South and East England

The Tree Year:
Flowers: May/June
Leaves: April
Fruit: Aug
Ripen: Oct


ROWAN

Sorbus aucuparia - Rowan, Mountain Ash, Gaelic Caorunn, Welsh Cerddin, Irish Caorthann

Description:
Small vigorous hardy deciduous tree producing large number of red berries in autumn. Coppices well. Height 15m but up to 18m. Age 100 years or more

Habitat:
Light and peaty soils not water logged up to 1000m. Pioneer species not tolerant of shading except in some Scots Pine woods.

Natural Distribution:
Commonest West and North of Britain but native throughout Britain and Ireland. Also Europe, North Africa and Asia Minor.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: May/June
Leaves: April
Fruit: Sept
Ripen: Oct/Nov Timber:
Dense hard pale brown wood.

Uses of Wood:
Turnery and carving and good firewood. Used to make bows in middleages. Formerly used for tool handles, mallet heads, bowls and platters.

Food and Drink:
Berries are edible and used to make rowan jelly which is eaten with game. Enjoyed by birds who disperse seed.


SCOTS PINE


Pinus sylvestris - Scots Pine, Scots Fir. Irish Giuis

Description:
Large evergreen and only native British Pine. Height 40m. Age - typically up to 150 years but 300 possible.

Habitat:
Light and sandy soils at low or moderate elevation. Does not like sea winds or high rainfall.

Natural Distribution:
Now believed to have been native to Scotland and Ireland only at time of separation of England from continent although must have been found over the whole Ireland and Britain as the Ice sheets retreated. Found from Spain to Siberia.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: May
Leaves fall: 2nd Year (3 years after fertilization)

Timber:
Strong general purpose timber.

Uses of Wood:
Preservatives are effective on this wood hence suitable for outdoors. Used for fencing, joinery, building, flooring, box and packing case manufacture, railway sleepers, pitwood, fibreboard, chipboard, and telegraph poles. Referred to by the timber trade as "redwood" or "deal".

Food and Drink:
The needles yield a medicinal oil also pitch, tars, resin and turpentine obtained from the wood.




SILVER BIRCH

Betula pendula - Silver Birch, Warty Birch
Irish Beith

Description:
A smallish fast growing short lived tree. Pioneer and light demanding species. Rapid growth for first 20 years and mature at 40 years. Seldom planted in the UK by foresters although major timber species in Scandinavia, but important for conservation use in woodland. Height max 25m. Max age 60 - 80 years.

Habitat:
This tree tolerates a wide range of habitats, soil ph 3.5 to 7 but best on dry sandy soils and up to higher altitudes than most broadleaved species. Upland birchwoods are an important ecotype in Scotland.

Natural Distribution:
Native to all Britain and to west and central Ireland. Also through most of Europe and parts of Asia.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: April/May
Leaves: April/May
Fruit: June
Ripen: Sept
Leaves fall: Nov

Timber:
White to pale fawn in colour and easily worked. Flexible and tough but not very strong. Trees in Britain commonly rotten in centre reducing usefulness.

Uses of Wood:
Good firewood and pulpwood. Treated wood used for fence posts. Used in turnery and formerly for cotton reels and bobbins. Larger timber not usually produced in Britain. Twigs used for making brooms - bessoms.

Food and Drink:
Seeds consumed by redpolls, siskins and other small birds. Apparently a wine fermented from the sap was credited with medicinal properties. Wood and bark can be distiled to give birch tar used to make leather waterproof. The bark is waterproof and used in tanning. The young leaves are a diuretic.



SMALL LEAVED LIME

Tilia cordata - Small leaved Lime, Linden

Description:
Large deciduous tree believed at one time to have been dominant tree in English forests. Height 38 m. Age 500 years

Habitat:
Woods and cliffs except limestone. Sometimes forms pure stands but usually with Ash, Hawthorn, Field Maple, Birch, Oak, Wild Cherry and Wych Elm. Moderately tolerant of shade. Coppices strongly.

Natural Distribution:
England and Wales, and Southern Scotland not Ireland. Also most of Western Europe except Southern Spain, Italy and Greece.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: July
Leaves: Apr/May

Timber:
Relatively soft white or yellow wood, valuable timber. Does not change dimensions or warp once seasoned.

Uses of Wood:
Good for carving and making small articles and model making. Bark has strong fibre (bast) and once used for ropes.

Food and Drink:
Sugar can be made from sap and beekeepers regard as a good source of nectar. On continent flowers dried to make tea.



STRAWBERRY TREE

Arbutus unedo - Strawberry tree, Irish Caithne or
Suglair

Description:
Shrubby tree with laurel like evergreen leaves and warty red berry that looks like a strawberry.Height: 12m. Max age: not known.

Habitat:
In immature oak woods and developing woodland, rocky place.

Natural Distribution:
Native to South West Ireland especially near Killarney and in Mediterranean, believed to be relic from before last ice age.

The Tree Year:
Fruit: Autumn
Ripen: Autumn (Fruit takes a year to ripen)

Timber:
Pink fine grained and very hard.

Uses of Wood:
None recorded.

Food and Drink:
The strawberry like berries are edible but with unpleasant flavour although birds like them and spread the seeds.



SESSILE OAK


Quercus petraea - Sessile Oak, Durmast Oak. Welsh Derw, Gaelic Darachor, Irish Dair.

Description::on
Large deciduous tree growing slowly as seedlings but faster up to 199 years. Height 30-40m. Age 1000 years or more.

Habitat:
Acid upland soils often in pure stands. Prefers lighter well drained soils and not tolerant of flooding ph 4.0 - 6.0.

Natural Distribution:
Particularly West and Northern Britain and most of Western Europe and Asia Minor.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: April/May
Leaves: March/April
Fruit: Oct/Nov

Timber:
Pale brown hard wood. Less susceptible to epicormic growth than Q. Robur reducing the incidence of knots in the timber.

Uses of Wood:
Depending on size and quality used for sawn timber, veneer, building timber, hardwood pulp, poles, fencing, firewood and charcoal. Coppicing of woodland used to produce stakes.

Food and Drink:
Tannin used to be produced from bark for tanning leather. Acorns formerly used to feed pigs.


WHITEBEAM

Sorbus aria – Whitebeam
Description
Description:
Medium Deciduous tree with red berries. Height 20m

Habitat:
Calcareous woods in association with ash, beech, field maple, hawthorn and wych elm.

Natural Distribution:
Southern England, Central and Southern Europe. Also western Ireland (Galway)

The Tree Year:
Flowers: May/June
Leaves: May
Fruit: Sept
Ripen: Sept

Timber:
Brown wood quite hard good timber.

Uses of Wood:
Tool handle, turnery, furniture, plywood.

Food and Drink:
Edible fruit can be made into jam and wine.


WHITE WILLOW

Salix alba - White Willow. Irish Sailach (Willows in general)

Description:
Deciduous small tree with long thin leaves. Height 16m.

Habitat:
By streams in association with Alder and downy birch but not waterlogged soils.

Natural Distribution:
Through Britain but commonest in England and throughout North Africa and parts of Asia.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: April/May

Timber:
Pale brown wood.

Uses of Wood:
Shoots used for rough baskets and hurdles. Burns rapidly. Pollarded every 4-5 years to produce crop of straight poles.

Food and Drink:
Shoots and leaves browsed by animals particularly horses and need protection when small. Useful for rapidly growing windbreaks and screens.


WILD CHERRY
Prunus avium - Wild Cherry, Gean. Irish Crann silin

Description:
Small deciduous tree with round red fruit. Highly rated for timber.Height 20ft 5m. Age up to 200 years.

Habitat:
Fertile soil but prefers none acid rich soils. Found in woods and hedgerows.

Natural Distribution:
Throughout British Isles except Northern Scotland. Also most of Europe as far as the Urals.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: April/May
Leaves: April
Fruit: June
April June

Timber:
Reddish brown wood.

Uses of Wood:
Turnery, furniture, veneers, decorative panelling. Good firewood with fragrance of blossom as burns.

Food and Drink:
The black fruit are edible. Birds quickly strip fruit from trees.

WILD SERVICE TREE
Sorbus torminalis - Wild Services Tree, Chequers

Description:
Medium deciduous tree with brown berries rather rare and taken as an indicator of ancient woodland.Height 26m. Age Believed to be long lived.

Habitat:
Clay and limestone in general, light demanding although can stand shading. Found with Rowan, Cherry, and Oak. Coppice strongly and will produce suckers.

Natural Distribution:
England. Also Europe, North Africa Caucuses and Middle East.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: June
Leaves: May
Fruit: Sept/Nov

Timber:
Yellowish hard wood.

Uses of Wood:
Rather rare but used for turnery and cabinet work.

Food and Drink:
Berries are edible and formerly used to make an alcoholic beverage called chequers.

WYCH ELM

Ulmus Glabra - Wych Elm, Scots Elm. Irish Leamhan.

Description:
Large deciduous tree. Susceptible to Dutch Elm disease and accordingly not planted any more. Height 40m. Age up to 500 years

Habitat:
Typical hedgerow tree but found up to 300m. Requires non calcerous top soil. In mixed woods with Whitebeam and small leave lime and in Oak
and Ash woods.

Natural Distribution:
Common in North and West of Britain and Ireland. Native throughout Europe and W. Asia.

The Tree Year:
Flowers: Feb-Mar
Leaves: Apr/May
Fruit: May/June

Timber:
Strong and supple pale brown wood. Prone to shake. Cannot be split leading to particular uses. Does not decay when immersed in water.

Uses of Wood:
Used to be used to make chests, water pipes and troughs and for sea defenses. Also for sections for cow sheds, cribs and mangers, hubs of wheels, coffins and furniture.

Food and Drink:
Leaves once used for livestock.


YEW

Taxus baccata - Yew. Irish Iur.

Description:
Medium sized evergreen tree with characteristic red fleshy berries (called arils). Single seed in each aril. Height Typically 15 - 28 m. Age Very long lived - Maybe even 2000 years.

Habitat:
On limestone and chalk. Often occurs in the dense shade of Oak woods. Used for hedging and topiary.

Natural Distribution:
Throughout Britain and Ireland. Native to most of Europe, Asia Minor and North Africa.


The Tree Year:
Flowers: March/April

Propagation and Growth:
Deeply dormant seed needing treatment from collection in autumn to the spring of the following season but one (ie 18 months). 10,000 seeds per kg. Also propagated from cuttings and this may prove to be easiest method.

Timber:
Brown very durable wood.

Uses of Wood:
Used for furniture and for tool handles. Good firewood. Can fetch very high prices when ofright quality for veneer.

Food and drink:
All parts of the tree except red aril are poisonous to man and animals although deer browse young seedlings. Birds eat the arils and spread the seed.


This is a work of fan fiction, written because the author has an abiding love for the works of J R R Tolkien. The characters, settings, places, and languages used in this work are the property of the Tolkien Estate, Tolkien Enterprises, and possibly New Line Cinema, except for certain original characters who belong to the author of the said work. The author will not receive any money or other remuneration for presenting the work on this archive site. The work is the intellectual property of the author, is available solely for the enjoyment of Henneth Annûn Story Archive readers, and may not be copied or redistributed by any means without the explicit written consent of the author.

Story Information

Author: Andreth

Status: General

Completion: Complete

Era: Other

Genre: Research Article

Rating: General

Last Updated: 10/31/03

Original Post: 10/30/03

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