Places in Middle-earth
Type: Kingdoms, Realms, Lands
Region: Other Middle-earth
Location: The old North Kingdom (Arnor), and South Kingdom (Gondor), including the eastern lands ruled by Gondor at the height of its power.
Description: "In Gondor the King Elessar now ruled, and in Arnor also. In all the lands of those realms of old he was king, save in Rohan only; for he renewed to Éomer the gift of Cirion, and Éomer took again the Oath of Eorl."
RotK, Appendix A, II, The House of Eorl
Gondor was at its previous largest extent in the days of King Hyarmendacil I, when:
"The realm then extended north to [the Field of ] 1 Celebrant and the southern eaves of Mirkwood; west to the Greyflood; east to the inland Sea of Rhûn; south to the River Harnen, and thence along the coast to the peninsula and haven of Umbar. The Men of the Vales of Anduin acknowledged its authority; and the kings of the Harad did homage to Gondor, and their sons lived as hostages in the court of its King."
RotK, Appendix A, I, iv, Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion
1. Note that Christopher Tolkien mentions both in Unfinished Tales and in Peoples of Middle-earth that "to the Celebrant" was an error which should read "to the Field of Celebrant."
It is known that Elessar gave complete governance of some parts of the realm to the peoples inhabiting those portions; these areas seemed nonetheless to be considered part of the Reunited Kingdom. The Shire, Fangorn, and Druadan Forest were given to the Hobbits, the Ents, and the Wild Men respectively. Rohan was also self-governed, but, at least during Elessar's lifetime, a very close ally.
Other areas were allotted to specific groups, but the amount of oversight is unclear: Nurn to the former slaves of Mordor, the Glittering Caves to Gimli and the Dwarves who followed him, and an area of Ithilien to Legolas and his people from Eryn Lasgalen.
It is also unclear whether Gondor had any degree of authority over Erebor and Dale:
"Then Bard II, Brand's son, became King in Dale, and Thorin III Stonehelm, Dáin's son, became King under the Mountain. They sent their ambassadors to the crowning of King Elessar; and their realms remained ever after, as long as they lasted, in friendship with Gondor; and they were under the crown and protection of the King of the West."
RotK, Appendix B, The Tale of Years
depending on what is meant by 'under the crown and protection of.'
Contributors: Lyllyn 4.1.04