Places in Middle-earth
Type: Kingdoms, Realms, Lands
Riddena-mearc: 'land of the knights'
The Riddermark (in Rohan)
The Mark (of the Riders) (in Rohan)
Calenardhon 'The Green Province' (in Gondor before 2510 III, when it was a province of Gondor)
Location: North of the White Mountains and South of the River Limlight and the Fangorn Forest.
From Unfinished Tales:
The bounds of the realm of Eorl were to be: in the West the river Angren from its junction with the Adorn and thence northwards to the outer fences of Angrenost, and thence westwards and northwards along the eaves of Fangorn Forest to the river Limlight; and that river was its northern boundary, for the land beyond had never been claimed by Gondor. In the east its bounds were the Anduin and west-cliff of the Emyn Muil down to the marshes of the Mouths of Onodló, and beyond that river the stream of the Glanhír that flowed through the Wood of Anwar to join the Onodló; and in the south its bounds were the Ered Nimrais as far as the end of their northward arm, but all those vales and inlets that opened northwards were to belong to the Éothéod, as well as the land south of the Hithaeglir that lay between the rivers Angren and Adorn.
Unfinished Tales, Part 3, Ch 2, Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan: Cirion and Eorl
Description: "You are looking now south-west across the north plains of the Riddermark, Rohan the land of the Horse-lords. Ere long we shall come to the mouth of the Limlight that runs down from Fangorn to join the Great River. That is the north boundary of Rohan; and of old all that lay between Limlight and the White Mountains belonged to the Rohirrim. It is a rich and pleasant land, and its grass has no rival..."
FotR, Book 2, Ch 9, The Great River
Formerly a part of Gondor, it was given to Eorl and his people in T.A. 2510. At the founding of Rohan Eorl swore an oath to Cirion, the Steward of Gondor, to always aid Gondor in battle, which was kept.
"Cirion, therefore, in reward for his aid, gave Calenardhon between Anduin and Isen to Eorl and his people; and they sent north for their wives and children and their goods and settled in that land. They named it anew the Mark of the Riders, and they called themselves the Eorlingas; but in Gondor their land was called Rohan, and its people the Rohirrim (that is, the Horse-lords)."
RotK, Appendix A, II, The House of Eorl
"Eorl the Young came with his riders and swept away the enemy, and pursued the Balchoth to the death over the fields of Calenardhon. Cirion granted to Eorl that land to dwell in, and he swore to Cirion the Oath of Eorl, of friendship at need or at call to the Lords of Gondor."
RotK, Appendix A, I, iv, Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion
Etymology of Calenardhon
calen (galen) the usual Sindarin word for 'green', in Ard-galen, Tol Galen, Calenardhon; also in Parth Galen ('Green Sward') beside Anduin and Pinnath Gelin ('Green Ridges') in Gondor. See kal-. ...
kal- (gal-) This root, meaning 'shine', appears in Calacirya, Calaquendi, Tar-Calion; galvorn, Gil-galad, Galadriel. ... calen (galen) 'green' is etymologically 'bright', and derives from this root....
The Silmarillion, Appendix: Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names
Contributors: Moriel 5.16.03
Quotes added by Lyllyn 5.17.03
added 'of the Riders': Elena Tiriel 15Jun04
added meanings: ET 24Sep04, 29Dec04
Etymology: ET 5Dec05